Gullfoss (translated to ‘Golden Falls’) is one of Iceland’s most iconic and beloved waterfalls, found in the Hvítá river canyon in south-west Iceland.
The water in Hvítá river travels from the glacier Langjökull, before cascading 32 meters (105 feet) down Gullfoss’ two stages in a dramatic display of nature’s raw power. This incredible site is seen by most visitors, as it is on the Golden Circle sightseeing route.
Because of the waterfall’s two stages, Gullfoss should actually be thought of as two separate features. The first, shorter cascade is 11 metres (36 feet), whilst the second drop is 21 metres (69 feet). The canyon walls on both sides of the waterfall reach heights of up to 70 metres (230 feet), descending into the great Gullfossgjúfur canyon. Geologists believe that this canyon was formed by glacial outbursts at the beginning of the last age.
In the summer, approximately 140 cubic metres (459 cubic feet) of water surges down the waterfall every second, whilst in winter that number drops to around 109 cubic metres (358 cubic feet). With such energy, visitors should not be surprised to find themselves drenched by the waterfall’s mighty spray.
As mentioned, Gullfoss makes up a part of the highly popular Golden Circle sightseeing route, alongside Geysir geothermal area and Þingvellir National Park. Many Golden Circle tours include additional activities that can be taken from Gullfoss, such as ascending the mighty nearby glacier Langjökull and entering its ice tunnels, or snowmobiling along its gleaming surface.
In the early days of the last century, Gullfoss was at the centre of much controversy regarding foreign investors and their desire to profit off Iceland’s nature. In the year 1907, an English businessman, Howell, sought to utilise the waterfall’s energy and harboured ambitions to use its energy to fuel a hydroelectric plant.
At the time, Gullfoss was owned by a farmer named Tómas Tómasson. Tómas declined Howell’s offer to purchase the land, stating famously “I will not sell my friend!” He would, however, go on to lease Howell the land without the knowledge of a loophole that would allow him to proceed with his plans.
It was Tómas’ daughter, Sigríður Tómasdóttir, who would lead the charge to stop Howell’s ambitions. Having grown up on her father’s sheep farm where she helped pave the first road to Gullfoss, she sought to get the contract nullified, hurriedly saving her own money to hire a lawyer.
The ensuing legal battle was an uphill struggle; the case continued for years, forcing Sigríður to travel many times by foot to Reykjavík, a distance of over 100 kilometres (62 miles). Circumstances became so difficult that Sigríður threatened to throw herself into the waterfall if any construction began.
Her tenacity, however, resulted in success. In 1929, Howell’s withdrew from the lease, unable to keep up with the costs and difficulties of his plan. The waterfall fell back into the hands of the Icelandic people.
Today, Sigríður is recognised for her perseverance in protecting Gullfoss and is often hailed as Iceland’s first environmentalist. As such, she is one of the most famous figures in Iceland’s history. Her contribution is forever marked in stone; a plaque detailing her plight sits at the top of Gullfoss.
Interestingly, the lawyer who assisted Sigríður, Sveinn Björnsson, went on to go down in history too; he became the first president of Iceland in 1944.
Besides Gullfoss, visitors can enjoy the views from Gullfoss Cafe, a locally run delicatessen that serves a wide variety of refreshments and meals. The menu has options to tantalise everyone’s taste buds: hot soups, sandwiches, salads and cakes. There is also a shop on site where visitors’ can browse and purchase traditional Icelandic souvenirs.