Over the last two decades, Iceland has rapidly grown to become what is arguably the whale watching centre of Europe. Here is everything you need to know about whale watching in Iceland.
Icelandic folklore is filled with fantastic stories that reflect the important role whales have played in shaping Iceland's cultural and economic history.
As early as in the Heimskringla saga of King Olaf Tryggvason, it is written that when the devious King Harald Bluetooth was planning to invade Iceland, he had a sorcerer take the form of a terrible whale who was to locate the island’s points of vulnerability.
But each of the four times the whale-sorcerer attempted to go ashore, the land wights of Iceland—the dragon of the east, the griffin of the north, the bull of the west, and the mountain giant of the south—sent him cowering back out to sea again, rendering the invading King’s efforts futile.
But although countless legends tell remarkable tales of the meetings between Icelanders and magical cetacean creatures, the first official Icelandic whale watching ship didn't leave port until 1991, carrying under a dozen curious passengers seeking a personal encounter with the gentle giants of the sea.
- See also: Seals and seal watching in Iceland
Keiko the Killer Whale
Keiko on December 1, 1998. Photo by unknown author. Wikimedia Creative Commons.
The most famous whale ever to grace Icelandic waters, however, is not a magical creature of ancient literature or folklore, but the hero of a Hollywood blockbuster.
Keiko, the male killer whale (orca) who portrayed Willy in the 1993 film Free Willy, was captured in Reyðarfjörður fjord in east Iceland in 1979, at the age of two and subsequently bought and sold between various aquariums and marine parks where he learned to perform for audiences before being cast by the Warner Brothers Studios.
Following Keiko’s rise to stardom, The Free-Willy Foundation was established in 1995 for the original purpose of finding him a better home; and in 1998, the world looked on in amazement as Keiko was loaded aboard a C-130 US-Air Force cargo plane and flown from the United States, back home to his birthplace in Iceland; Keiko would finally be given the opportunity to swim in the ocean again, with the hope of eventually being reunited with other killer whales.
In August 2002, Keiko finally left Icelandic territorial waters with a group of wild killer whales, but in September he showed up in Norway's Skålvik Fjord, desperately seeking human contact; his reintegration into the wild had failed and on December 12 the following year, Keiko died of pneumonia while swimming alone in Norwegian fjords. He was 27 years old.
No single marine animal has brought more attention to the whales of Iceland than Keiko, and since his tragic passing, whale watching in Iceland has rapidly grown into a flourishing industry. Last year alone, just under 300,000 people ventured on whale watching trips from Icelandic harbours.
Whaling has been practised in Iceland from as early as the 12th century, and despite Keiko's popularity and the recent surge in whale watching tourism, Icelanders remain one of only a handful of nations on earth that still hunt and kill whales.
In 1986 Iceland’s already highly controversial whaling industry became the subject of worldwide scrutiny when anti-whaling activists of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society sank the whaling vessels Hvalur 6 and Hvalur 7 (shown below) which made up half of the Icelandic four ship whaling fleet.
The incident sparked fierce international debate between various radical and moderate animal rights organisations, but the ultimate outcome of that debate was not in Sea Shepherd's favour; most environmentalists denounced the organisation's tactics as too extreme, with some going as far as branding the incident as an act of terrorism.
Domestically, public opinion immediately swayed in favour of the previously unpopular whaling industry, with the general population viewing the incident as a gross outside intrusion into domestic affairs. The two sunken vessels were promptly raised, and for a number of years, whaling continued, backed by even greater public approval than before.
With the rise of the Icelandic whale watching industry, however, whaling has in recent years become increasingly unpopular amongst the general Icelandic population with only a fraction of Icelandic whale meat actually being consumed by Icelanders—less than 2% to be precise. The rest is either exported to Japan or served to tourists.
In today's Iceland, commercial whaling is generally considered to be an expression of an ancient worldview that is slowly but surely fading into nonexistence.
Many old Icelandic whaling vessels are now used to watch and study whales in their natural habitat, and it is the hope of IceWhale (the Icelandic Whale Watching Association), that within a few years, commercial whaling will be completely eradicated from Icelandic waters.
Whales of Iceland
Abundant summer daylight combined with a unique mixture of cold and warm sea currents that blend in Iceland's shallow fjords make the Icelandic territorial waters home to a rich variety of krill and fish, and consequently a bountiful feeding ground that attracts twenty-three species of whales, from the enormous sperm whale to the gentle little harbour porpoise.
This picture from WDC shows the most common types of whales found around Iceland.
The chances of spotting a specific type of whale on a whale watching trip vary depending on the port of departure, but the Minke whale is by far the most commonly sighted animal and can be seen all around Iceland throughout the year.
The Minke whale is curious by nature and boats always arouse its interest so that explorers are consistently provided with ample opportunities for up-close encounters with this magnificent creature.
On the most affordable whale watching trip departing from Reykjavik, the most commonly spotted animals are minke whales, whale beaked dolphins and harbour porpoises, but the chances of seeing the humpback heavyweight, are much higher on a Húsavík whale watching trip in Skjálfandi bay in North Iceland.
Although the humpback whale is a wary creature, its lively nature ensures that the chances of seeing it are very high as it has a tendency for breaching the surface with extreme force and perform extraordinary acrobatic displays in midair.
What are the best tours?
A whale watching tour will always be an unforgettable experience and there is an abundance of enticing options available for all whale watching enthusiasts.
I advise you to examine this list of whale watching tours to see your options, where you can choose from a variety of vessels, ranging from traditional Icelandic oak boats to modern RIB speedboats, and tours lasting from a couple of hours to whole days.
The puffin, Iceland's unofficial national bird, breeds in large colonies on offshore islands and coastal cliffs, and therefore some tours include puffin watching as well.
Below is a list of the most affordable whale watching tours, sailing from Iceland's main whale watching ports.
|Port of departure||Cheapest Whale Watching Tours||Chances of Seeing a Whale||Common Species in Area||Availability|
10,900 ISK - Best Value Whale Watching Trip by Reykjavík Sailors
Minke and Humpback Whale, Whale-Beaked Dolphins and Harbour Porpoise
10,990 ISK - Akureyri Whale Watching by Eyjafjord Whale Watching
|99%||Humpback and Minke Whale, Harbour Porpoise and White-beaked Dolphin||All Year|
10,300 ISK - Húsavík Traditional Whale Watching by Gentle Giants Whale Watching
|99%||Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, Blue Whale, and White-Beaked Dolphins||May - November|
9,900 ISK - Whale Watching from Dalvík in North Iceland by Arctic Adventures
|98%||Humpback Whale and White-Beaked Dolphins||May - November|
9,400 ISK - Whale Watching and Sea Angling by Whale Watching Hauganes
|99%||Humpback and Minke Whale, Harbour Porpoise and White Beaked Dolphin||May - September|